Maruti was established in February 1981 by Sanjay Gandhi on Background of Government of India though the actual production commenced only in 1983. It started with the Maruti 800, based on the Suzuki Alto kei car which at the time was the only modern car available in India. Its only competitors were the Hindustan Ambassador and Premier Padmini. Originally, 74% of the company was owned by the Indian government, and 26% by Suzuki of Japan. As of May 2007, the government of India sold its complete share to Indian financial institutions and no longer has any stake in Maruti Udyog.
Under the Maruti name
In 1970, a private limited company named Surya Ram Maruti technical services private limited (MTSPL) was launched on November 16, 1970.[relevant? – discuss]The stated purpose of this company was to provide technical know-how for the design, manufacture and assembly of "a wholly indigenous motor car". In June 1971, a company called Maruti limited was incorporated under the Companies Act. Maruti Limited went into liquidation in 1977. Maruti Udyog Ltd was incorporated through the efforts of Dr V. Krishnamurthy.
Affiliation with Suzuki
In 1982, a license & Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) was signed between Maruti Udyog Ltd. and Suzuki of Japan. At first, Maruti Suzuki was mainly an importer of cars. In India's closed market, Maruti received the right to import 40,000 fully built-up Suzukis in the first two years, and even after that the early goal was to use only 33% indigenous parts. This upset the local manufacturers considerably. There were also some concerns that the Indian market was too small to absorb the comparatively large production planned by Maruti Suzuki, with the government even considering adjusting the petrol tax and lowering the excise duty in order to boost sales. Finally, in 1983, the Maruti 800 was released. This 796 cc hatchback was based on the SS80 Suzuki Alto and was India’s first affordable car. Initial product plan was 40% saloons, and 60% Maruti Van. Local production commenced in December 1983. In 1984, the Maruti Van with the same three-cylinder engine as the 800 was released and the installed capacity of the plant in Gurgaon reached 40,000 units.
In 1985, the Suzuki SJ410-based Gypsy, a 970 cc 4WD off-road vehicle, was launched. In 1986, the original 800 was replaced by an all-new model of the 796 cc hatchback Suzuki Alto and the 100,000th vehicle was produced by the company.[dead link] In 1987, the company started exporting to the West, when a lot of 500 cars were sent to Hungary. By 1988, the capacity of the Gurgaon plant was increased to 100,000 units per annum.
In 1989, the Maruti 1000 was introduced and the 970 cc, three-box was India’s first contemporary sedan. By 1991, 65 percent of the components, for all vehicles produced, were indigenized. After liberalization of the Indian economy in 1991, Suzuki increased its stake in Maruti to 50 percent, making the company a 50-50 JV with the Government of India the other stake holder.
In 1993, the Zen, a 993 cc, hatchback was launched and in 1994 the 1298 cc Esteem was introduced. Maruti produced its 1 millionth vehicle since the commencement of production in 1994. Maruti's second plant was opened with annual capacity reaching 200,000 units. Maruti launched a 24-hour emergency on-road vehicle service. In 1998, the new Maruti 800 was released, the first change in design since 1986. Zen D, a 1527 cc diesel hatchback and Maruti's first diesel vehicle and a redesigned Omni were introduced. In 1999, the 1.6 litre Maruti Baleno three-box saloon and Wagon R were also launched.
In 2000, Maruti became the first car company in India to launch a Call Center for internal and customer services. The new Alto model was released. In 2001, Maruti True Value, selling and buying used cars was launched. In October of the same year the Maruti Versa was launched. In 2002, Esteem Diesel was introduced. Two new subsidiaries were also started: Maruti Insurance Distributor Services and Maruti Insurance Brokers Limited. Suzuki Motor Corporation increased its stake in Maruti to 54.2 percent.
In 2003, the new Suzuki Grand Vitara XL-7 was introduced while the Zen and the Wagon R were upgraded and redesigned. The four millionth Maruti vehicle was built and they entered into a partnership with the State Bank of India. Maruti Udyog Ltd was Listed on BSE and NSE after a public issue, which was oversubscribed tenfold. In 2004, the Altobecame India's best selling car overtaking the Maruti 800 after nearly two decades. The five-seater Versa 5-seater, a new variant, was created while the Esteem was re-launched. Maruti Udyog closed the financial year 2003-04 with an annual sale of 472,122 units, the highest ever since the company began operations and the fiftieth lakh (5 millionth) car rolled out in April 2005. The 1.3 L Suzuki Swift five-door hatchback was introduced in 2005.
In 2006 Suzuki and Maruti set up another joint venture, "Maruti Suzuki Automobiles India", to build two new manufacturing plants, one for vehicles and one for engines. Cleaner cars were also introduced, with several new models meeting the new "Bharat Stage III" standards. In February 2012, Maruti Suzuki sold its ten millionth vehicle in India. For the Month of July 2014, it had a Market share of >45 %.
Relationship between the Government of India, under the United Front (India) coalition and Suzuki Motor Corporation over the joint venture was a point of heated debate in the Indian media until Suzuki Motor Corporation gained the controlling stake. This highly profitable joint venture that had a near monopolistic trade in the Indian automobile market and the nature of the partnership built up till then was the underlying reason for most issues. The success of the joint venture led Suzuki to increase its equity from 26% to 40% in 1987, and to 50% in 1992, and further to 56.21% as of 2013. In 1982, both the venture partners entered into an agreement to nominate their candidate for the post of Managing Director and every Managing Director would have a tenure of five years
Maruti Suzuki has three manufacturing facilities in India. All manufacturing facilities have a combined production capacity of 1,700,000 vehicles annually. The Gurgaonmanufacturing facility has three fully integrated manufacturing plants and is spread over 300 acres (1.2 km2). The Gurgaon facilities also manufacture 240,000 K-Series engines annually. The Gurgaon Facilities manufactures the Alto 800, WagonR, Omni, Gypsy King, Ertiga, S-Cross, Vitara Brezza, Ignis and Eeco.
The Manesar manufacturing plant was inaugurated in February 2007 and is spread over 600 acres (2.4 km2). Initially it had a production capacity of 100,000 vehicles annually but this was increased to 300,000 vehicles annually in October 2008. The production capacity was further increased by 250,000 vehicles taking total production capacity to 800,000 vehicles annually. The Manesar Plant produces the Alto 800, Alto K10, Swift, Swift DZire, Ciaz, Baleno, Baleno RS and Celerio. On 25 June 2012, Haryana State Industries and Infrastructure Development Corporation demanded Maruti Suzuki to pay an additional Rs 235 crore for enhanced land acquisition for its Haryana plant expansion. The agency reminded Maruti that failure to pay the amount would lead to further proceedings and vacating the enhanced land acquisition. The launch of the Desire was happened in the month of May 2017 and the variant is said to have good milage
The Gujarat manufacturing plant became operational in February 2017. The plant current capacity is about 250,000 units per year. But with new investments Maruti Suzuki has plan to take it to 450,000 units per year. 
In 2012, the company decided to merge Suzuki Powertrain India Limited (SPIL) with itself. SPIL was started as a JV by Suzuki Motor Corp. along with Maruti Suzuki. It has the facilities available for manufacturing diesel engines and transmissions. The demand for transmissions for all Maruti Suzuki cars is met by the production from SPIL.
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